Volan III was the third planet in the Volan system in the Demilitarized Zone, one of two planets in the system known to be settled (the other is Volan II). By the terms of the Federation-Cardassian Treaty, the Federation-settled system was given over to the Cardassian Union, and its residents given the choice to either get out or accept Cardassian rule. (DS9: "The Maquis, Part I")
The planet became a hotbed of Maquis resistance as Cardassian settlers began moving to the planet; the Maquis based here carried out operations both on- and off-planet. The Cardassians settled in their own enclaves, but the colonists resented their presence and violence was almost inevitable. (DS9: "The Maquis, Part I", Star Trek: Sigils and Unions--"Flash") In 2370, Gul Dukat took Benjamin Sisko to the planet to prove that there were former Federation citizens willing to commit terrorist acts against Cardassians. (DS9: "The Maquis, Part I")
Until he left in 2370 to plant evidence for the Cardassian show trial of Miles O'Brien, a surgically-altered Cardassian operative had lived for many years prior among the Federation colonists, having taken the identity of former Rutledge officer Raymond Boone. (DS9: "Tribunal")
Federation citizens had settled on Volan III as early as the 2340s even though it was in one of the disputed sectors along the Cardassian frontier. Under an agreement between the Federation and the Cardassian Union, Cardassians were allowed to settle on the planet as long they left Federation colonists alone. The rich mizinite deposits were enough to compensate for collateral damage suffered during the Betreka Nebula Incident. Limis Vircona, who was living on Volan III in 2361, felt that in the midst of the Federation-Cardassian War, such an arrangement would lead to disaster as had been the case on Bajor during the Occupation.
Limis was still living on Volan III when the Federation-Cardassian Treaty formally ceded the planet to the Cardassian Union. Such an agreement made her resentful of the Federation, and she eventually found her way into the Maquis. (Star Trek: Lambda Paz: "Divided Loyalties", "Religion To Do Good")
In 2371, Legates Turrel and Ghemor decided to try a different tactic with their new colonies: making an attempt to peacefully win over their hearts and minds. A junior gul, Tayben Berat, was sent as the Cardassian envoy. Berat spoke with the colony's leader at that time, Governor Soon, and then to a crowd of colonial residents, seeking to allay their fears and find a way for Cardassians and former Federation citizens to coexist.
Sadly, Berat's attempt at rapprochement with the colonists came to an abrupt end when an assassination attempt nearly killed him. Though Berat survived, he was left with a permanent disability as a result, a significant portion of the use of his hands lost to him, in addition to other symptoms. Berat fought to retain his command, and also fought to continue his mission and to return to Volan III once he was sufficiently healed, believing that to make this return and try again even after suffering so much at a colonist's hands would be just the sign they would need to begin establishing trust.
Instead, although Legate Ghemor saved Berat's command, he was not able to override Central Command's insistence upon sending a crackdown force into the system under the leadership of Gul Evek. (Star Trek: Sigils and Unions--"Flash")