The Twelve Families were the 12 most ancient and distinguished Vulcan clans, "the basis of [their] civilization."
The Shari Tcha'kla was a council and law-enforcement body that monitored members of the Twelve Families on the degree to which they hewed to the Surakian standard. Those who did not were deemed v'tosh ka'tur -- Vulcans who rejected the teachings of Surak, and were without logic. Such individuals were banished from Vulcan society. (Absolute Horizon)