The Starfleet Bar Examination was a test administered by the Judge Advocate General office. It was most commonly administered at graduation from Cogley Law School, although civilian law school graduates could also write it to enter Starfleet service.
In the 25th century, the Judge Advocate General office administered its own bar examination, tailored for Starfleet practice. As such, the Starfleet Bar Examination primarily contained essay questions pertaining to the common areas of practice of military lawyers, although Starfleet lawyers ended up practicing in civilian jurisdictions also. (Star Trek: False Vacuum: "Pledge of the Protester")
The Starfleet Bar Examination contained about one-half the questions pertaining to military law and the other half contained questions that are otherwise typical of a civilian bar exam.