The New Zealand Penal Settlement was a rehabilitation prison colony located near Auckland in New Zealand during Earth's 24th century. The goal of the penal settlement was to rehabilitate prisoners to help them re-establish themselves as productive members of society after their release.
Master Chief Petty Officer Manfred Kano, father of Voyager Lieutenant Henry Kano was the Master at Arms for the New Zealand Penal Settlement from 2361 to 2366 until his retirement from Starfleet. (Star Trek: Voyager - Dark Realm)
Some captured Maquis were sent to the penal settlement. Tom Paris was one such former Maquis member there, spending 18 months until his release in 2371. (VOY: "Caretaker") Matthew Cole served eight months of his term before being released to assist Starfleet during the Dominion War. (Star Trek: Intrepid)
In 2372, James Leyton was sentenced to serve five years at the New Zealand Penal Settlement for his role in the attempted coup d'état to oust the Federation Council and Federation President from power. (DS9 novel: Hollow Men)
Mikali Galea was incarcerated at the New Zealand Penal Settlement in early 2374 for his role in assisting Dr. Samantha Delaney in her attempt to destroy Earth. (Star Trek: The Cantabrian Expeditions: "In the Still of the Night")
Dr. Philip J. Eyota was incarcerated at the New Zealand Penal Settlement in mid 2380 for his use of sub-space weapons technology aboard the scientific outpost McCoy 12. He was released by the review board in late 2381. (Star Trek: Pioneer)
- The actual location of the penal settlement in New Zealand was established in Jeri Taylor's novel Pathways; however, the images shown on Star Trek: Voyager's "Caretaker" are a coastal (and rural) area, so we must assume this is near, but not in, the Auckland metropolitan area (the population of which in the early 21st century numbered at approximately 1.3 million). The Greater Auckland area encompasses 7 cities and regions.