The Matura was a Rakelli standardized test whose passage was mandatory for undergraduate admission at a Rakelli university. It was administered by the Rakelli Democratic Republic Ministry of Education. (Star Trek: The Stoneship Files: "Educational Armageddon")
The test was designed as such that 0 was the minimum score attainable, while 170 was the highest. Peokaa scored 146 on her first try; getting into Braytac University required a score of roughly 130 for all faculties not called the Faculty of Fashion, while admission to the Faculty of Fashion required a score of roughly 150.
Several countries use, in actuality, tests that serve a similar purpose and also called the Matura.