Caldwell's work remains a staple in both Starfleet Medical and civilian medical training throughout the Federation and Klingon Empire. As one of the Federation's leading xenoendocrinologists, he was nominated for the Carrington Award three times, winning it posthumously the third time in 2362.
He was diagnosed with a terminal illness shortly prior to his wife's disappearance in 2360. Her presumed death hit Caldwell quite hard, and his downward slide into further illness progressed quickly. He died in 2361, leaving Benjamin Caldwell a ward of the state at the age of 16. (Star Trek: The Cantabrian Expeditions: "Breaking Benjamin")