Education is the process through which knowledge is given to people from those who possess it. Educational standards, as well as societal attitudes towards education, vary widely from a species to another and from an era to another. This is typically done at schools.
Education by raceEdit
Cardassians valued educational attainment highly; their educational system was considered internally as being unparalleled in the Alpha Quadrant. Cardassian children were subjected to intensive mental training from the age of four years old. (DS9: "The Maquis, part I")
By contrast, Klingons didn't value higher education any more than they did comfort; because of higher education getting the shaft from the government, tuition was among the highest in the known Alpha and Beta Quadrant, rendering higher education nearly inaccessible. (Star Trek: The Stoneship Files: "The Defector")
Lyrans had shoddy educational practices, where no special certification was required to teach at an elementary school or high school level other than getting an university diploma. Also, colleges and universities, including medical school, were seen as being of a lower standard, compared to even Klingon education. (Star Trek: The Stoneship Files: "Educational Armageddon")
Malachorian education relied heavily on teaching to the test and standardized testing until the end of high school. Cheating was permitted but only for cheating charter holders. (RIS Bouteina: "No Child Left Untested")