Asperger's syndrome is a medical condition first diagnosed by Hans Asperger during Earth's 20th century, characterized by significant difficulties in social interactions, along with restricted and repetitive patterns of behavior and interests.
By the 24th century, research into autism spectrum disorder had progressed to where individuals with low-functioning autism are treated through genetic re-sequencing and able to live relatively normal lives once the condition is diagnosed. Such individuals still exhibit personality traits and behaviors consistent with Asperger's.
Aurellan Markalis was one such individual, who was found to have a severe form of autism when she was three years of age. During her adulthood, her peers and colleagues would consider her socially awkward, often struggling with basic social interaction and understanding non-verbal cues. Such deficiencies were often obstacles in career advancement. One positive effect of her condition was being classified as intellectually gifted. This trait, as well her candid directness, caught the attention of prospective commanding officers during Markalis's Starfleet training. One colleague aboard the USS Lambda Paz thought she had some Vulcan heritage even though Markalis was human, by all outward appearances. (Star Trek: Lambda Paz: "Revenge a Dish Best Served Cold", "Moral Dilemma", "Midnight Ride", "Religion To Do Good", "A Cause of Greater Worth")