Archaeology is the scientific study of cultures. The science focuses on recovering evidence, then documenting and analyzing it, and ending in interpreting the data. Evidence can come from a wide range of sources. Xenoarchaeology is a specialist field of archaeology, dealing with non-Terran cultures. People trained in this science are called archaeologists or xenoarchaeologists (depending on their specialty).
Some archaeologists included USS Prospect-A officers Anne Lansing and Amy Peale and USS Pendragon commanding officer Timothy Sinclair (Star Trek: The Prospect Chronicles; Star Trek: Shabonee; Star Trek: Pendragon) . An alien technologies officer was sometimes an archaeologist as well. (Star Trek: Avenger)
Dr. Kenneth Lillington-Hughes was a famous Federation archaeologist in the mid- to late-24th century. USS Cantabrian commanding officer Captain Noah Wrightson had several of his works. (Star Trek: The Cantabrian Expeditions: "Catalyst, Part One")